So to Reiterate… (sorry followers this is last you will hear of it)
-I have provided scientific evidence of toxic heavy metals in pet foods drastically exceeding the established safe upper limit. This speaks for itself. Actual proven evidence that the safe levels have been well exceeded.
-I have provided a detailed account of textbook canine carnivorous biology. This is science, and in itself shows that the dog is primed for an animal based diet. I will outline again below, and even compare this physiology to omnivores and herbivores. This biology is a fundamental reason why raw feeding is important.
-I have provided 3 studies showing that dogs are healthier on high protein diets, and mortality is actually increased on low protein diets. This is in response to your totally incorrect statement that protein may actually cause harm. Kibble generally ranges from 50-70% carbohydrate. Raw diets are based on protein and fat - the only two macronutrients dogs need. Heavy carbohydrate loads are only incorporated for the manufacturers benefit, as these ingredients are very cost-effective, increase shelf-life, and are absolutely essential to the kibble base.
-I have provided 13 human studies showing the negative effects of refined high carbohydrate diets. You have no been able to prove that these diets are healthy for dogs, so this evidence is +1 for raw feeding, in combination with canine protein studies.
-You have provided a study showing that wild and domestic cats do not have significant differences in the rates of periodontal disease (same as AWD - conveniently you chose a skull as similar as possible despite the massive differences amongst canine breeds). The same study however, found that wild cats had drastically less calculus than domestic cats . This suggests that periodontal disease is caused by other factors than just unclean teeth, but doesnt change the fact that whole prey was proven to maintain better hygiene. Note that dental calculus (as seen in domestic) does predict future periodontal disease though too.
-You have resorted to insults instead of providing any actual evidence that kibble is healthy long-term for dogs.
-Short simple gut, designed to push animal products through quickly. If meat were to sit for long periods of time bacteria could potentially multiply to harmful levels. Omnivores and herbivores have longer GI tracts in order for plant material to slowly break down and ferment.
-Dogs lack the enzymes to break down plant material in its raw form, and can only digest it when cooked (similar to cats and other carnivores). Omnivores and herbivores have such enzymes which are combined with various other physiological traits, such as grinding teeth, in order to facilitate breakdown of plant matter.
-Highly acidic gastric acid. Designed to neutralize any harmful pathogens in carrion (scavengers), meat and feces.
-Pointed dentition, designed to hold, rip and tear meat from bone. Dogs lack the flattened molars seen in omnivores for the purpose of grinding plant matter. Carnassial Pair: This pair of teeth is a characteristic of the order carnivora, specifically the suborder feliformia and caniform . The Carnassial Pair specializes in tearing meat and slicing through tendons. Small pointed incisors: these are for nibbling meat from the bone. Four premolars line each side of the upper and lower jaws in back of the canines. Premolars are for tearing, and ridged molars for crushing bone (not chewing or masticating like in humans). These are the shearing teeth, used to rip chunks of flesh from prey animals. Canine teeth: these are for grabbing and puncturing prey.
-The salivary glands serve merely to lubricate, and do not have an important digestive function. Food is rarely chewed into small portions, but ‘wolfed’ down whole.
-Salivary lysozyme. This is an antimicrobial enzyme useful for management of bacteria found in rotten food, carcasses and feces.
-Lack of salivary amylase. This is found in omnivores and herbivores, and starts the process of breaking down carbohydrates in the mouth.
-A single hinge joint that lays in the same plane as the teeth, like other mammilian carnivores.
-The majority of mammalian carnivores have eyes are set relatively centrally on the face, in a way that allows visual acuity and depth perception in front of the animal. In contrast, the eyes of horses, cows, deer, and other prey species are set more toward the sides of the head, allowing an almost panoramic range of vision (roughly 350 degrees in horses). This feature allows plant-eating prey to have a wide range of vision in order to spot predators.
-Carnivores have a wide mouth opening in relation to their head size. This confers obvious advantages in developing the forces used in seizing, killing and dismembering prey. Facial musculature is reduced since these muscles would hinder a wide gape, and play no part in the animal’s preparation of food for swallowing.
-The primary muscle used for operating the jaw in carnivores is the temporalis muscle. This muscle is so large in carnivores that it accounts for most of the bulk of the sides of the head. The angle of the mandible in carnivores is small. This is because the masseter and pterygoids that attach there are of minor importance in these animals. Shoulder blades are detached from the skeleton to allow for greater flexibility and speeds while running.
-The pancreas is V-shaped in carnivores. This elongated gland is made up of groups of cells called acini that produce digestive enzymes and secrete them into the pancreatic duct as pancreatic juice. Secretion occurs after the dog has eaten. The pancreas can secrete amylase in response to carbohydrates, like in many mammalian carnivores (including cats, obligate carnivores). Dogs are very adaptable and are often labelled opportunistic carnivores. They lack the requirement for any carbohydrates in their diet. Most plant proteins are incomplete and therefore manufacturers must add a variety of chemical isolates to their product following cooking. These pre-mixes (similar to vitamin pills) allows for survival, similar to in cats, many of whom are also on kibble diets.
-The dogs lower jaw cannot physically move sideways. This is a function that allows omnivores (and herbivores) to grind plant material in order to aid pre-digestion. Note that your own lower jaw has lateral movement to facilitate side-to-side chewing and grinding. When the jaw of a carnivore closes, the blade-shaped cheek molars slide past each other to give a slicing motion that is very effective for shearing meat off bone. The temporal bone, the Mandibular fossa, features a deep C shape that does not permit lateral movement in the jaw.
-The liver of a carnivore has the capacity to eliminate far more uric aid than the liver of an omnivore or herbivore. Uric acid is necessary to break proteins into amino acids. The carnivore liver is large and produces uricase, an enzyme that breaks down uric acid. The carnivore liver is capable of eliminating 10-15 times more uric acid than the liver of the herbivore (meat digestion releases large amounts of uric acid).
-Large stomach capacity, designed for large less frequent meal consumption. Dogs have a highly elastic stomach designed to hold large quantities of meat, bone, organs, and hide. Their stomachs are simple, with an undeveloped caecum (Feldhamer, G.A. 1999. Mammology: Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. McGraw-Hill. pg 260.). The totally distended stomach can occupy half of the abdominal cavity and the physical digestive system itself is identical to that of the wolf (carnivore).
I was hopeful that you would at least be able to provide some evidence that high carbohydrate kibble diets (remembering that this is what the entire conversation has been about - dont even try to change it now) are beneficial for healthy dogs. However, the lack of any scientific evidence (even though I have provided plenty of human studies), whilst resorting to childish insults and anecdotes of dogs you ‘see’, does not help your case. Im done now, the science truly speaks for itself. As for the diabetes study, you could not have missed the point any more obviously. Im not sure if you even read the whole thing, but it was actually in regards to the similarities in how humans, dogs and other mammals absorb carbohydrates in the small intestine (no, I wasnt referring to diabetes). Totally missed the boat on that one.
The combination of carnivorous canine biology, human studies showing the negative effects of heavy carbohydrate diets, studies showing that dogs have increased mortality on low protein high carbohydrate diets, studies showing the benefits of high protein diets in canines (exactly what raw diets are), a study showing that toxic heavy metals found in pet foods exceeded the safe established limits, plus a complete and utter lack of scientific evidence that kibble diets are actually healthy for dogs; all allow any stable-minded person to conclude that not only is a dog biologically designed to meat from head to toe, it is healthier on an animal protein diet. Im going to leave it there as you keep circling around to “digestible so healthy” and pet food manufacturer websites (Hills, seriously?). Every single aspect of scientific literature and biology is on the side of low carbohydrate, animal-protein based diets.
I wont be responding after this post (blocked IP - there is no point reading unsubstantiated opinions/anecdotes in my activity feed), as Im sure Ive probably annoyed a few followers with this.This is a biology based blog, not an anecdotal, and certainly not a blog where I allow insults instead of constructive science-based evidence (<evidence which only I have provided).
To those feeding PMR or thinking about it - you’re doing it right. Science; both literature and biology, is 100% on your side.